Tag Archives: violin

Codiad yr Hedydd

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Codiad Yr Hedydd
Llun trwy Garedigrwydd Archifau a Chasgliadau Arbennig, Prifysgol Bangor
Photograph courtesy of Archives and Special Collections, Bangor University

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Dyma ‘Codiad yr Hedydd’, sydd yn alaw o lawysgrif Bangor Ms. 2296 sef Llawysgrif Robert Thomas o Gaernarfon, ar dudalen 12 (gweler mwy o wybodaeth am Robert Thomas a’i lawysgrif yma).

Mae hi’n fersiwn o alaw mwy adnabyddus gan David Owen, ‘Codiad yr Ehedydd’ (gweler fersiwn o honno yma ar wefan MeuCymru). Gosododd Ceiriog eiriau i’r dôn.

Dyma’r geiriau sy’n cael eu canu isod yn yr enghraifft o’r alaw a’i recordiwyd ar gyfer y blog. Roedd offerynwyr a chantorion yn chwarae a chanu’r geiriau a’r alaw yn Arbrawf Mawr trac 2014 ar Ynys Môn. Diolch yn fawr iddyn nhw!
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This melody is called ‘Codiad yr Hedydd’ which translates to ‘The Rising of the Lark’. This is a melody on page 12 of Bangor Ms. 2296 (Robert Thomas’ manuscript – see more information on Robert Thomas and his manuscript here)

The tune is a version of the a more familiar tune, ‘Codiad yr Hedydd’, by David Owen. (A version of that tune can be seen here on the MeuCymru website). Ceiriog set the words to the tune.

These are the words that are sung in the example of the tune below, which was recorded for the blog. Instrumentalists and singers at trac’s Big Experiment 2014 on Anglesey played the tune and sung the words especially for the blog; a big thank you to them!

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Ewch yma i weld yr alaw mewn nodiant safonol/Click here to see the tune in standard notationCodiad yr Hedydd

Dyma nodiant abc o’r alaw/Here’s the melody in abc notationCodiad yr Hedydd

Dyma offerynwyr a chantorion Arbrawf Mawr trac yn chwarae a chanu’r alaw, os hoffech ei dysgu wrth glust:
Here are instrumentalists and singers in trac’s Big Weekend playing and singing the tune, if you’d like to learn the it by listening:

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Garthyfog

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Garthyfog
Llun trwy Garedigrwydd Archifau a Chasgliadau Arbennig, Prifysgol Bangor
Photograph courtesy of Archives and Special Collections, Bangor University

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Alaw o fath gwahanol i’r rhai cynt ar y blog yw ‘Garthyfog’. Mae hi’n dod o dudalen 2 o lawysgrif E. Ylltyr Williams, Bangor 2299 (darllenwch mwy am y llawysgrif yma) ac mae’r dyddiad o Mawrth 27ain 1867 arni. Diddorol nodi yw bod fferm o’r enw ‘Garthyfog’ yn bodoli yn agos i’r Bermo.

Mae hon yn emyn-dôn ac felly yn cynrychioli traddodiad tra gwahanol i’r alawon dawns, h.y. y capel a chrefydd. Fel yn y rhan fwyaf o emyn-donau, mae’r alaw wedi’i harmoneiddio ar gyfer pedwar llais. Ond mae yna fwy o leisiau wedi eu hychwanegu i’r alaw hon mewn pen inc (yn hytrach ‘na phensil gweddill y nodau). Y nodau gwreiddiol pensil yn unig sydd wedi eu cynnwys yn y fersiwn nodiant safonol isod.

Ar gyfer perfformio’r alaw mae’n werth gorffwys am ysbaid ar gord olaf yr hanner cyntaf (cord E fwyaf) a hefyd ar y cord olaf i gadw’n gyson â’r ffordd y perfformir emyn-donau fel arfer.

Diolch mawr i Gruff ab Arwel sydd wedi recordio ‘Garthyfog’ ar gyfer y blog gyda llais ag effeithiau. Nid yw ei fersiwn ef yn cynnwys y nodau ychwanegol ‘gyda phen inc’ chwaith.

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‘Garthyfog’ is a tune which is different to the rest on the blog. It’s found on page 2 of the Bangor 2299 manuscript, which is E. Ylltyr Williams’ manuscript (you can find more information about the manuscript here) and it’s dated March the 27th 1867. It’s interesting to note that a ‘Garthyfog’ Farm exists near Barmouth.

This is a hymn tune and so it represents the chapel and religion – a different type of tradition to the dance-style tunes so far. Like most hymn tunes, ‘Garthyfog’ is written for four voices. But more voices have been added to this tune in ink (as opposed to the pencil which is used in the rest of the notes). It’s the original pencil notes which have been included in the standard notated version below.

For performing this tune it’s worth adding a pause to the last chord of the first half (E major chord) and also the last chord, in keeping with the style in which hymns are usually performed.

A big thank you to Gruff ab Arwel for recording ‘Garthyfog’ for the blog using voice with effects. His version doesn’t include the ‘penned in’ notes either.

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Ewch yma i weld yr alaw mewn nodiant safonol/Click here to see the tune in standard notationGarthyfog

Dyma nodiant abc o’r alaw/Here’s the melody in abc notationGarthyfog

Dyma Gruff ab Arwel yn perfformio’r alaw gyda lleisiau ag effeithiau, os hoffech ddygsgu’r alaw wrth glust:
Here’s Gruff ab Arwel performing the tune using voice with effects, if you’d like to learn the tune by listening:

 

Ela Salmon

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Ela Salmon
Llun trwy Garedigrwydd Archifau a Chasgliadau Arbennig, Prifysgol Bangor
Photograph courtesy of Archives and Special Collections, Bangor University

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Dyma ‘Ela Salmon’ sydd ar dudalennau 82-83 o lawysgrif Bangor 2296, sef llawysgrif Robert Thomas o Gaernarfon (darllenwch fwy o wybodaeth am lawysgrif Robert Thomas yma).

Mae’r alaw yn gwneud synnwyr yn gerddorol, gyda diweddglo’r adran 1af a’r 3ydd adran mwy neu lai’r un peth. Mae’r adrannau hefyd â strwythur cyweiriau cyfarwydd (tonydd-llywydd-tonydd).

Ond mae yna nifer o elfennau anghyffredin yn ‘Ela Salmon’; mae hi’n alaw hir o’i chymharu â rhai eraill o lawysgrifau’r cyfnod. Mae yna 12 bar yn yr adran gyntaf, 13 yn yr ail a 12 yn y drydedd, sydd yn strwythur anarferol. Mae’r alaw hefyd fel petai ddim yn setlo ar y cywair. Oherwydd yr elfennau yma, tybed a oedd swyddogaeth arall gan yr alaw, er enghraifft ar gyfer canu penillion?

Mae yna fersiwn tebyg iawn o ‘Ela Salmon’ i’w gweld yn llawysgrif Morris Edwards (Bangor 2294, t. 33) ble mae yna 4 bar ychwanegol yn yr adran olaf.

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‘Ela Salmon’ is found on pages 82-3 of the Bangor 2296 manuscript, which is Robert Thomas from Caernarfon’s manuscript (you can find more information about the Robert Thomas manuscript here).

This tune is logical, with the end of the 1st and 3rd sections more or less the same. The sections also follow a straightforward key structure (tonic-dominant-tonic).

But there are some unusual elements in ‘Ela Salmon’; it’s a long tune compared to others from similar manuscripts of the period. There are 12 bars in the first section, 13 in the second and 12 in the third, which is unusually inconsistent. The melody is as if it doesn’t sit right on the key. Because of these elements, I wonder if the tune had a different function, perhaps for singing ‘penillion'(verses)?

There’s a very similar version of this tune in the Morris Edwards manuscript (Bangor 2294, p. 33) where there are an extra 4 bars in the last section.

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Ewch yma i weld yr alaw mewn nodiant safonol/Click here to see the tune in standard notationEla Salmon

Dyma nodiant abc o’r alaw/Here’s the melody in abc notationEla Salmon

Dyma fi yn chwarae’r alaw ar y ffidil:
Here’s my version of the tune on the fiddle:

 

 

Lily ym mûsg y Drain

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Lily ym Mûsg y Drain

Logo'r Archif

Llun trwy Garedigrwydd Archifau a Chasgliadau Arbennig, Prifysgol Bangor
Photograph courtesy of Archives and Special Collections, Bangor University

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Ymhlith tyfiant planhigion yr haf, dyma ‘Lily ym mûsg y Drain’, sydd ar dudalen 23 o lawysgrif Bangor 2294 sef Llawysgrif Morris Edwards (gweler mwy o wybodaeth am Morris Edwards a’i lawysgrif yma). Sillafiad cyfoes y teitl fyddai ‘Lili ymysg y Drain’.

Mae fersiwn lleddf o’r alaw yn fwy adnabyddus na hon, a gellir ei chlywed (er enghraifft) gan Jem Hammond yn y fideo yma.

Gallwch fy nghlywed i’n chwarae ‘Lily ym Mûsg y Drain’ ar y ffidil trwy ddilyn y ddolen ar wa waelod y post hwn.

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Among blooming plants of summer, this melody is called ‘Lily ym mûsg y Drain‘ which roughly translates to ‘Lily amidst the thorns’. It’s found on page 23 of Bangor Ms. 2294 (Maurice Edwards’ manuscript – see more information on Maurice Edwards and his manuscript here)

A better-known minor key version of this tune exists, played for instance in this video video by Jem Hammond.

You can hear ‘Lily ym mûsg y Drain’ played by me on the fiddle by following the link at the bottom of this post.

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Ewch yma i weld yr alaw mewn nodiant safonol/Click here to see the tune in standard notationLily ym mûsg y Drain

Dyma nodiant abc o’r alaw/Here’s the melody in abc notationLily ym mûsg y Drain

Dyma fi’n chwarae’r alaw ar y ffidil os hoffech chi ei dysgu yn ôl y glust:
Here I am playing the melody on the fiddle, if you’d like to learn the tune by listening:

 

Calennig

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Calenig
Llun trwy Garedigrwydd Archifau a Chasgliadau Arbennig, Prifysgol Bangor
Photograph courtesy of Archives and Special Collections, Bangor University

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Dyma ‘Calennig’ sydd ar dudalen 24 o lawysgrif Bangor 2294, sef llawysgrif Morris Edwards (darllenwch fwy o wybodaeth am lawysgrif Morris Edwards yma).

Yn ôl y sillafiad cyfoes, rwyf wedi golygu’r teitl i fod yn ‘Calennig’ yn hytrach ‘na ‘Calenig’. Mae canu Calennig yn cael ei gysylltu â thraddodiadau sy’n croesawu’r flwyddyn newydd (ymddiheuriadau am yr alaw allan o dymor!).

Mae cyfarwyddiadau tempo yn weddol brin yn llawysgrif Morris Edwards ond mae wedi nodi y dylai’r alaw hon gael ei chwarae yn andante, felly cyflymdra cerdded neu yn weddol araf.

Mae’r fersiwn sydd i’w chlywed isod wedi ei recordio gan aelodau o 10 Mewn Bws ar gyfer y blog hwn. Diolch yn fawr iddyn nhw!

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This is ‘Calennig’, found on page 24 of the Bangor 2294 manuscript, which is Morris Edwards’ manuscript (you can find more information about the Morris Edwards manuscript here).

Calennig tunes and traditions are associated with welcoming the new year (apologies for being out of season in this post!).

Tempo markings are rare in the Morris Edwards manuscript but he notes that this one should be played andante, which means ‘walking pace’ or quite slow.

The version below has been recorded especially for the blog by members of 10 Mewn Bws. A big thanks to them!

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Ewch yma i weld yr alaw mewn nodiant safonol/Click here to see the tune in standard notationCalennig

Dyma nodiant abc o’r alaw/Here’s the melody in abc notationCalennig

Dyma fi a Huw Evans, Catrin O’Neill, Gwen Mairi Yorke ac Ellen Jordan o 10 Mewn Bws yn chwarae’r alaw, os hoffech ddysgu’r alaw wrth glust:
Here’s me with Huw Evans, Catrin O’Neill, Gwen Mairi Yorke and Ellen Jordan from 10 Mewn Bws playing the tune, if you’d like to learn by listening:

Grisial Ground

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Grisial Ground
Llun trwy Garedigrwydd Archifau a Chasgliadau Arbennig, Prifysgol Bangor
Photograph courtesy of Archives and Special Collections, Bangor University

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Dyma ‘Grisial Ground’ sydd ar dudalen 4 o lawysgrif Bangor 851, sef llawysgrif o alawon gan Ffowc Roberts (gallwch weld mwy o wybodaeth am lawysgrif Ffowc Roberts yma).

Mae’r enw ‘Grisial Ground’ yn cyfateb i ‘Crystal Ground’, sef cân sy’n ymddangos yng nghasgliad F.J.Haydn o ganeuon gwerin Cymraeg (H. 31b/15, 1809/17). Mae alaw Haydn yn debyg iawn i alaw ‘Grisial Ground’ a welwn yng nghyfrol Bardic Museum Edward Jones (Bardd y Brenin) o 1802. Mae alaw Haydn hefyd efallai’n fwy adnabyddus na’r un hon. Mae’r ddwy alaw yn 3/4, ond heblaw am hynny maent yn alawon tra wahanol.

Wrth chwarae’r alaw hon rwyf wedi penderfynu creu drôn ar y nodau A ac E i efelychu’r grwndfas sy’n cael ei awgrymu yn y teitl, ond byddai modd chwarae’r alaw yn effeithiol gyda harmonïau mwy cymhleth hefyd.

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This is ‘Grisial Ground’, which roughly translates to ‘Crystal Ground’. It’s found on page 4 of the Bangor 851 manuscript, which is Ffowc Roberts’ manuscript (you can find more information about the Ffowc Roberts manuscript here).

The name ‘Grisial Ground’ corresponds to ‘Crystal Ground’, which is a song that appears in F.J. Haydns’s collection of Welsh Folksongs (H. 31b/15, 1809-17). The melody used by Haydn is very similar to the tune of ‘Grisial Ground’ that we see in Edward Jones’ collection, ‘Bardic Museum‘ from 1802. Haydn’s version of the tune is slightly better known than this one. Both versions are in 3/4, but they are very different tunes.

While playing this tune, I’ve decided to create a drone on A and E, to reflect the idea of a groundbase, which is suggested in the title. But the tune could be played effectively with more complicated chords as well.

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Ewch yma i weld yr alaw mewn nodiant safonol/Click here to see the tune in standard notationGrisial Ground

Dyma nodiant abc o’r alaw/Here’s the melody in abc notationGrisial Ground

Dyma fi yn chwarae’r alaw ar y ffidil, os hoffech ddygsgu’r alaw wrth glust:
Here’s me playing the melody on the fiddle, if you’d like to learn the tune by listening:

 

 

 

Corporation Cymdeithas

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Corporation Cymdeithas
Llun trwy Garedigrwydd Archifau a Chasgliadau Arbennig, Prifysgol Bangor
Photograph courtesy of Archives and Special Collections, Bangor University

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Dyma ‘Corporation Cymdeithas’ sydd ar dudalen 87 o lawysgrif Bangor 2296, sef llawysgrif Robert Thomas o Gaernarfon (darllenwch fwy o wybodaeth am lawysgrif Robert Thomas yma).

Mae’n ymddangos fod yr alaw hon wedi cipio dychymyg nifer o gerddorion wrth i fersiynau eithaf gwahanol ohoni (ond gyda’r un syniad o ran siâp yr alaw) ymddangos mewn nifer o ffynonellau tebyg o’r cyfnod. Rhai enghreifftiau fyddai:
‘Corporation’ – Rhif 59 a 358 o gyfrol Alawon John Thomas (gol. Cass Meurig, Aberystwyth, 2004, Tudalennau 19 a 108)
‘Coporasion’ – Llawysgrif Morris Edwards (Archifau Prifysgol Bangor, Llsg. 2298, c.1778)

Mae’n ddiddorol y bod teitl ‘Corporation Cymdeithas’ ychydig yn wahanol i’r teitlau uchod – mae’n bosib y bod Robert Thomas wedi gwneud ymgais ar gyfieithu ‘Corporation’ i’r Gymraeg.

Yn ol Cass Meurig (gol. Cass Meurig, Aberystwyth, 2004, tud. 137), roedd yr alaw yn cael ei ddefnyddio ar gyfer carolau ym mesur yr awdl-gywydd. Efallai y bod hyn yn egluro pam fod 10 bar yn yr ail hanner yn lle’r 8 a fyddai’n ddisgwyliedig.

Yn ôl defnydd arferol, rwyf wedi golygu y nodau minim ar ddiwedd pob cymal i fod yn grosiet a dot.

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This is ‘Corporation Cymdeithas’, which roughly translates to ‘Society Corporation’. It’s found on page 87 of the Bangor 2296 manuscript, which is Robert Thomas from Caernarfon’s manuscript (you can find more information about the Robert Thomas manuscript here).

It appears that this tune took the imagination of musicians at the time because many versions of it appear in similar sources. These vary largely but all have the same shape to the tune and a similar structure. Examples include:
‘Corporation’ – Nos. 59 and 358 of Alawon John Thomas (ed. Cass Meurig, Aberystwyth, 2004, Pages 19 and 108)
‘Coporasion’ – Morris Edwards’ manuscript (Bangor University Archives, Llsg. 2298, c.1778)

According to Cass Meurig (ed. Cass Meurig, Aberystwyth, 2004, p. 137), the tune ‘was used for Welsh carolau in the awdl-gywydd metre.’

To fit the usual use, I’ve edited the minim at the end of each phrase to be a dotted crotchet.

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Ewch yma i weld yr alaw mewn nodiant safonol/Click here to see the tune in standard notationCorporation Cymdeithas

Dyma nodiant abc o’r alaw/Here’s the melody in abc notationCorporation Cymdeithas

Dyma fi yn chwarae’r alaw ar y ffidil, os hoffech ddygsgu’r alaw wrth glust:
Here’s me playing the melody on the fiddle, if you’d like to learn the tune by listening: